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Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are localized malformations of cortical development associated with refractory epilepsies. Seizure onset most commonly occurs in the first decade of life and the clinical presentation varies according to the localization of the lesion. Neuropsychological impairment often accompanies the high seizure burden. Drug- resistant seizures can be controlled in a significant percentage of patients if adequate surgical treatment is possible. Although some clinical, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging characteristics of the FCDs are well understood, the differences among the histological subtypes of FCDs remains to be better determined.
focal cortical dysplasia seizures