Main Article Content


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) are new neurophysiological techniques that allow neurologists and neuroscientists to investigate brain function and neural networks in normal humans as well as in those with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.
In epilepsy, these techniques reveal abnormal excitability of the brain in focal and generalized epilepsy. Different patterns of excitatory and inhibitory changes detected by TMS have the potential to be used in the clinic for evaluating patients with epilepsy and to help with diagnosis, monitoring and treatment.
Repetitive TMS (rTMS) and tDCS have the ability to modulate cortical excitability over prolonged periods and are being trialled for the treatment of epilepsy. However, further studies are needed to find optimal stimulation paradigms that reliably reduce seizures, and to confirm long term benefits and safety of these interventions.
There are fewer TMS and tDCS studies in children and it's not clear if patterns of excitability changes are similar to those seen in adults or if there are unique patterns in childhood epilepsies. Continuing interventional trials assessing safety and efficacy of TMS and tDCS offer hope to children with treatment resistant epilepsies.


Transcranial magnetic stimulation Transcranial direct current stimulation intra-cortical facilitation intra-cortical inhibition

Article Details

Author Biographies

Soumya Ghosh, Consultant Neurologist, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Fiona Stanley Hospital and Western Australian Neuroscience Research Institute Clinical Prof., Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia Dept. of Neurology, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Roberts Road, Subiaco, WA 6008

Consultant Neurologist/Nuerophysiologist, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Fiona Stanley Hospital and Western Australian Neuroscience Research Institute
Clinical Prof., Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia

Medical Director, Centre for Restorative Neurology, Western Australian Neuroscience Research Institute

Lakshmi Nagarajan, Head, Department of Neurology Princess Margaret Hospital for Children Clinical Professor, University of Western Australia

Consultant Paediatric Neurologist/Epileptologist

Head, Department of Neurology
Princess Margaret Hospital for Children
Clinical Professor,  University of Western Australia

Director, Child and Adolescent Epilepsy Program

How to Cite
Ghosh, S., & Nagarajan, L. (2016). Non-invasive brain stimulation in childhood epilepsy. Journal of the International Child Neurology Association, 1(1).


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