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Children in low and middle income countries are 16 times more likely to die before 5 years of age compared to children in high-income countries. More than 200 million children under five in the developing world do not fulfil their potential, the major reasons appear to be poor nutrition, and limited access to education in the setting of extreme poverty. Three major factors with multiple sub-headings result in threats to the child’s brain. Namely, the background setting the child is born into and grows up in, the acquired influences of the local setting, and the available interventions for the child. The following text is an overview of these key issues and their subheadings, for children residing in low and middle income countries. Whilst many influencers are beyond the control of health practitioners, such as conflicts of war and impact of famine, there are relatively cost effective interventions which can have a massive ripple effect in reducing diseases of high burden such as effective vaccination programs, insectide immerced nets for beds, and effective pigs pens. There is need for viable protocols to be adapted for the local setting, for simple, cost effective diagnostic tools to be developed and for health practitioners to be equipped with the skills to cope with neurological disorders, especially those prevalent in and specific to low and middle income countries.
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