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Background: Scoliosis is a common musculoskeletal co-morbidity seen in children with cerebral palsy (CP).

Objective:  To describe the prevalence of scoliosis and to analyze the relation between scoliosis, gross motor function, and CP subtypes in order to propose a surveillance program for children with CP in Malaysia.

Methods: Cross-sectional study of children with CP between 5 to 18 years old were recruited between July 2017 to March 2018. A clinical examination was done and Cobb’s angle were measured on all spine radiographs. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, CP subtype, age at clinical diagnosis of scoliosis, and the Cobb angle at the first radiographical examination were registered.

Results: Eighty-one children were recruited. 46/81 (56.8%) had clinical scoliosis and were subjected to spine radiograph. Only 41/81 (50.6%) had scoliosis with Cobb angle >10O, of which 9/81 (11.1%) had a Cobb angle >40O. Risk of scoliosis was directly related to the GMFCS level with 4/81(4.9%) at GMFCS I-III and 37/81(45.7%) in GMFCS IV-V. More than half of the children with bilateral spastic CP (52.3%) and dystonic CP (60%) had scoliosis. Children in GMFCS levels IV-V developed scoliosis by 10 years old.

Conclusion: In our cohort, more than half had scoliosis. The frequency of scoliosis increased with GMFCS level and spastic CP subtypes. The proposed simple spine surveillance based on GMFCS levels will lead to early detection, improve care and allow for timely intervention of the scoliotic deformity in children with CP in Malaysia.


scoliosis cerebral palsy children frequency risk factors GMFCS Cobb angle

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How to Cite
Anandakrishnan, P., & Khoo, T.-B. (2022). Frequency and predictive factors of scoliosis in Malaysian children with cerebral palsy. Journal of the International Child Neurology Association, 1(1).


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